North East Digital Village
Bill of Rights
The United States Constitution was written in 1787. Two years later - in response to the outcry of the citizens of the new country who demanded protection of their basic civil rights - the first ten amendments, known collectively as the "Bill of Rights" were added.
Text of the Bill of Rights
- Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press, Right to Assemble, Religious freedom: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
- The right to bear arms: A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
- No forced housing of soldiers: No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
- Limits searches or seizures: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
- No self incrimination, and right to due process: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
- Everyone has a right to a trial by a jury and to have attorney provide a defense: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.
- Right to a trial under common law: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
- Limits on confinment & punishment by government: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
- The Constitution cannot deny rights of others: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
- States rights to govern: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
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In Germany they came first for the Communists,
and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist.
Then they came for the Jews,
and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew.
Then they came for the trade unionists,
and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist.
Then they came for the Catholics,
and I didn't speak up because I was a Protestant.
Then they came for me,
and by that time no one was left to speak up.
~ Martin Niemoeller, German Protestant Clergyman
Learn more About the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
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